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The preliminary version of the software which implements the functionalities described in this document is available:

ftp://ftp.cslab.tas.ntt.co.jp/pub/at/at.tar.gz (anonymous FTP)
http://www.cslab.tas.ntt.co.jp/at/ (WWW)

Written by Kazuhiro Kuwabara <kuwabara@cslab.kecl.ntt.co.jp>


AgenTalk is a language for describing coordination protocols for multiagent systems. It is co-developed by NTT Communication Science Laboratories and Ishida Laboratory, Department of Information Science, Kyoto University.


In multiagent systems, achieving coordination among autonomous agents is a major problem. Generally, a high-level protocol needs to be designed to achieve effective coordination. In the field of distributed artificial intelligence, protocols for achieving coordination have been proposed, such as the contract net protocol (1) for task allocation, and the multistage negotiation protocol (2) for resource allocation under global constraints. These protocols have been further customized to suit various application domains. In addition, as software agents proliferate, demand for customized protocols will increase.

In order to facilitate the development of multiagent coordination protocols, we designed a new language called AgenTalk. AgenTalk is not meant to be a formal specification language; rather it is meant to be a programming language capable of implementing protocols and agents behaving according to the protocols.

AgenTalk is used in implementing the agent network called Socia, whose goal is to realize a teleorganization.(3) On Socia, a desktop teleconferencing support system was developed.

Design Policy

Execution Model

In AgenTalk, an agent is regarded as an entity which has its unique name, and can send and receive messages. A message's receiver (address) is specified by a receiver agent's name.

An agent basically takes an action when a message is received. A message handler specifies the action to take when a particular message is received. In AgenTalk, a message is specified as message pattern (see section Message Pattern). Primitives for defining a message pattern and its associated message handler are provided.

In addition, a state in the coordination process can be explicitly represented (see section Design Policy). From the viewpoint of a message handler, the state defines a set of messages that can be handled and how the messages are handled. It can be viewed that message handlers are added and removed dynamically when a state transition occurs. A script interpreter automatically updates the message handlers according to the script which is the representation of a finite state machine in AgenTalk (see section Script).


Supported Lisp

The version 1.1.x of AgenTalk is implemented in Common Lisp, and Common Lisp primitives are readily available. Currently Allegro Common Lisp (ACL) version 4.2 and Macintosh Common Lisp (MCL) 3.0p2 and 3.9 are used in order to utilize a multi-process (thread) extension of Lisp. Each agent is implemented as a process (thread) in a Lisp system.

Agents communicate with each other using shared memory if they are in the same Lisp system. Agents use TCP connections to communicate with agents in different Lisp systems.

The runtime support facility written in C, which provides basic message handling functionalities of AgenTalk, is included for enabling existing applications (written in C) to communicate with lisp-based agents in AgenTalk (see section Runtime Facility (in C)).


In the Lisp implementation, the following packages are used.

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